## Jul 12, 2015

### Prime factorization Elms

Some time ago I played with the idea of "plant-like" prime factorization visualization, whereas prime decomposition of a number is rendered as a plant, with branching that corresponds to its prime factors.

There was a little C++/OpenGL demo producing amusing pictures and all, however one of the obvious problems was that one had to download and compile the code to try it.

So I figured I'd give it another shot, from a different angle.

The Elm programming language looked like an interesting candidate for a few reasons:

• It's a web-frontend language, so there we go - the demo accessibility problem is sorted out
• It's high level, succinct, focused on visuals and interaction, so presumably fewer lines of code to do the same thing
• It's built upon the Functional Reactive Programming paradigm, and I heard that learning new paradigms is a good thing to do
• It's kind of like Haskell, and Haskell is hard, but these are more like nice pictures and Marios, so I could do those instead and look a little bit like the cool kids who can do Haskell!

Anyway, here's the online demo of the result (SPACE toggles pause mode, arrows allow to swap numbers back and forth):

The code itself is on GitHub, it's pastable verbatim into "try elm", so feel free to... well, try :)

(update: also on share-elm)

Now, step by step, about how the code works.

### Drawing a trunk and a fruit

Let's start from drawing a "trunk" and a "fruit" on top (the numbers are hardcoded to make thing simpler):

import Colorimport Graphics.Collage exposing (..)import Graphics.Element exposing (..) -- draws a trunktrunk: Form trunk =  polygon [(-5, 0), (-2, 80), (2, 80), (5, 0)]      |> filled (Color.hsl 0.3 0.3 0.5) -- draws a fruitfruit: Form fruit =  let grad =    Color.radial        (0, 0) 5        (4, -4) 16        [(0, Color.hsl 1.5 0.4 0.9),        (1, Color.hsl 1.5 0.4 0.7)]  in    circle 15    |> gradient grad main: Element main = collage 400 300 [trunk, fruit |> moveY 80]

There are two functions "trunk" and "fruit" that create corresponding graphical elements ("Forms").

Trunk is just a polygon (trapezoid), filled with a brown color. Fruit is a circle, filled with a green-ish gradient (specified by an inner center/radius, outer center/radius and two gradient stops).

These forms are combined into an "Element" (like a DOM element) using "collage".

The fruit is moved 80 pixels upwards. Note that the center of coordinates is in the middle of the collage, and Y axis is looking upwards.

This collage is what the main program produces and what we see on the screen.

Elm borrowed the pipe function ("|>") from F#, and it's used quite a few times in the code to "thread" an argument through several modifier functions.

### Drawing a tree

Now let's repeat this trunk/fruit drawing recursively, traversing a list of integers.

Each integer is interpreted as a branching factor on every level:

--  finds a rotation angle for i-th branch from n,-- so that the branches are evenly fanned out in a conefanOutAngle: Float -> Int -> Int -> Float fanOutAngle cone i n =  if n <= 1 then 0  else degrees ((toFloat i)/((toFloat n) - 1) - 0.5)*cone -- draws a subtree recursively,-- according to the list of integer factorssubTree: Float -> List Int -> Form subTree cone s =  case s of    n::xs ->      let fork = \k ->            [ trunk            , subTree (cone*0.95) xs                 |> scale 0.8                 |> moveY 80            ]            |> group            |> rotate (fanOutAngle cone k n)      in      [0..(n - 1)]      |> List.map fork      |> group    _ -> fruit main: Element main = collage 400 300 [subTree 100 [1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 7] |> moveY -150]

That makes the recursive magic happen:

The gist of the recursion step for a "branch" is:

• draw first whatever is supposed to be on the tip of the branch (recursively)
• scale the result down a bit
• move it upwards to give some space for the parent trunk
• draw the parent trunk itself
• rotate all together with the trunk by a given angle (fanOutAngle)
• repeat for all the children (the current number n from the list)

That's it. In order to understand recursion, one needs to first understand recursion.

The fanOutAngle is a little helper function which finds how much to rotate a branch with index i, so that the total of n branches are evenly distributed inside a cone. For example, that's how it looks for fanOutAngle(cone,1,6):

### Drawing a bud

We've got to tackle the situation when a number becomes too big, and drawing it as a fan of branches produces too cluttered image.

The solution is to draw it as a "bud" using a Fermat spiral layout. This both gives a nice evenly looking distribution and actually does happen in nature (the so-called phyllotaxis, or an arrangement of leaves in e.g. sunflowers), so it's a good plant metaphor.

Code-wise, the change is minimal. We introduce an alternative layout function that instead of branch-fan-out layout does the Fermat Spiral one, and switch between two based on a number threshold:

goldenPhi: Float goldenPhi = 137.5/180.0*pi -- draws a subtree recursively,-- according to the list of integer factorssubTree: Float -> List Int -> Form subTree cone s =  case s of    n::xs ->      let fork = \k ->            [ trunk            , subTree (cone*0.95) xs                 |> scale 0.8                 |> moveY 80            ]            |> group            |> rotate (fanOutAngle cone k n)          bud = \k ->            [subTree cone xs                |> moveY (sqrt(goldenPhi*(toFloat k))*3)                |> scale 0.4            ]            |> group            |> rotate (goldenPhi*(toFloat k))            |> moveY 30      in      [0..(n - 1)]      |> List.map (if n < 17 then fork else bud)      |> group    _ -> fruit main: Element main = collage 400 300 [subTree 100 [1, 2, 3, 79] |> moveY -150]

### Prime number decomposition

Now let's step aside from drawing for a moment and look at the "data model" of what we draw.

The used algorithm for prime factorization is simple and rather inefficient, but it does the job just fine:

• divide by 2 until it divides (gathering the corresponding 2s as factors)
• continue from trying to divide by 3 and upwards, with step 2
• repeat until the current divisor is bigger than square root of the original number

There is also a bit of code to format the description string for the prime decomposition:

import Textimport Stringimport Colorimport Graphics.Element exposing (..) primeFactors: Int -> Int -> List Int primeFactors n s =  if | s*s > n -> [n]     | n%s == 0 -> s::(primeFactors (n//s) s)     | s == 2 -> primeFactors n (s + 1)     | otherwise -> primeFactors n (s + 2) primes: Int -> List Int primes n = 1::(primeFactors n 2) primeDescription: Int -> List Int -> Element primeDescription n factors =    let fstr = factors        |> List.drop 1        |> List.map toString        |> String.join "x"    in      toString n ++         (if List.length factors == 2          then " - PRIME!"          else " = " ++ fstr)        |> Text.fromString        |> centered main =  flow down (List.map (\k -> primeDescription k (primes k)) [2..99])

which displays

2 - PRIME!3 - PRIME!4 = 2x25 - PRIME!6 = 2x37 - PRIME!8 = 2x2x29 = 3x310 = 2x511 - PRIME!12 = 2x2x3...

(by the way, one is not a prime number, but we want that one in the list anyway)

Now, we can get all of the earlier code together and display 42, decomposed into prime factors:

primeView: Int -> Element primeView n =  let factors = primes n  in    flow down    [ primeDescription n factors |> width  400    , collage 400 300 [subTree 100 factors |> moveY -150]    ] main: Element main = primeView 42

### Signals plumbing

So far we've been producing a static image as the program output. Now, getting to the actual "Functional Reactive Programming" part.

We'd like to do at least a few things:

• animate the current number, starting from 2 upwards, with a certain delay between the consecutive numbers
• allow to pause the animation with space
• allow to step the current number forward/backward with the arrow buttons
• have the graphics adjust to the current window size

This is done via "signals" in Elm - streams of data (such as time and user input) that get transformed, filtered, merged etc. And in the end, the result of the whole program is still in a sense a static image, or rather a sequence of them, built as a function of these signals.

The signals we employ:

• Time.every - fires periodically, with specified period
• Keyboard.arrows - fires whenever arrow buttons are pressed
• Keyboard.presses - general "button pressed" signal (to know when SPACE is pressed)
• Window.dimensions - when window size is changed

Essentially, our plant image gets updated correspondingly whenever any of the signals gets fired:

The code looks like:

primeView: (Int, Bool) -> (Int, Int) -> Element primeView (n, paused) (w, h) =  -- ...  -- mostly as before, only dependent on "paused" and window dimensions now -- the stream of updates from timer and keyboardtype Update = Tick Float | Arrows {x: Int, y:Int} | Press Keyboard.KeyCodeupdates: Signal Update updates =  mergeMany  [ map Tick (Time.every (Time.second*3))  , map Arrows Keyboard.arrows  , map Press Keyboard.presses  ] -- evaluate the current number and paused status based on the updates streamfoldUpdates: Update -> (Int, Bool) -> (Int, Bool) foldUpdates update (i, paused) =  case update of    Arrows {x, y} -> (max 2 ((i + x + y)%1000), paused)    Press 32 -> (i, not paused)    Tick _ -> ((i + (if paused then 0 else 1))%1000, paused)    _ -> (i, paused)  main: Signal Element main =  primeView  <~ foldp foldUpdates (2, False) updates   ~ Window.dimensions

The first three signals get merged into a single signal updates via Signal.mergeMany function. A discriminated union Update is used to identify which event in the merged signal belongs to which original signal.

Then, this merged signal is threaded through Signal.foldp, which in a sense allows to maintain a current "state", represented by tuple (i, paused), where i is the current number to display, and paused tells whether the animation is currently paused.

So after the foldp we get a signal which is a sequence of states (i, paused) to display, together with Window.dimensions signal it gets mapped into the primeView function (it has a corresponding signature):

### Other tidbits

A couple of other things to mention.

One is that the we don't really want to have all these magic numbers in the code, so it's better to have them as named "constants" (which is a kind of oxymoron in our case, since in Elm everything is, you know, "constant").

In the demo code I grouped all these "tweakable constants" into a record, having in mind trying to later expose them to JavaScript via ports, so we could have an additional "tweakables" signal coming from an external JavaScript part, using e.g. dat.GUI.

Another thing is the fruit coloring: rotating hue by some constant factor depending on the branch index gives some nice visual variety:

So there we go: the beauty of mathematics combined with the beauty of functional (reactive) programming. All in your web-browser.

10/10 will try Elm again.

## Feb 17, 2015

### Interpolating functions via circular arcs in Julia

Time for some recreational math.

Let's try and write a program, which given a function equation and a segment, for example:

$$f(x) = 6x^2 + 4x - 8, x \in [-4, 4]$$

would build an approximation of this with a sequence of circular arcs.

As a bonus, we would like to generate the corresponding G-codes for these arcs, so the output of our program could be fed to some automatic cutting tool, which would cut out a nice parabola, so we could make a pendant, put it on the neck and proudly wear as a proof of our accomplishments!

### Possible solution

Given that the problem has real-world practical applications (in 3D printing, machining et al), there has been a wealth of research on the topic.

I've taken this ancient thesis as a starting point, mostly because of the simplicity of the approach it is taking.

So what we are going to try is essentially a rather brute force, greedy algorithm.

For some given segment [x1, x2], we draw the arc approximation as a circle, that passes through the point (x1, f(x1)), the point (x2, f(x2)) and also the third, middle point (xm, f(xm)), which for simplicity we can assume is equidistant from x1 and x2: Then the algorithm proceeds as following:

• Start from trying to fit an arc to the whole segment [a, b] (so that x1=a and x2=b) and compute the error value
• If error is good enough then we are done, otherwise we shrink the current segment by some ratio (say, 0.8), such that point x1 stays in place and point x2 moves left, repeating this until the error is good enough
• Once the current arc is fit, we repeat the same thing with the next one, this time trying to cover the remaining part of the segment (i.e. x1=x2_prev and x2=b)
• The previous two steps get repeated until we cover the whole segment (so that x2=b and the error is good enough)

Essentially, we will try packing the arcs left-to-right, in a "greedy" way, until the whole segment is covered.

### Julia language

Why using Julia programming language in particular?.. This sums it up nicely.

Matlab has established itself as a de-facto standard tool for scientific computations. I've been using it almost daily at the job, and it's rather good at what it does.

It also has flaws:

• Too expensive
• Too slow, in general
• The programming language itself is not very expressive

The first problem is what Octave is trying to solve, by being free and trying to replicate most of the Matlab's functionality. However, it's even "slower" than Matlab, and the language itself is pretty much the same, except of a few improvements (which was their goal, to start with).

The second problem can be somewhat mitigated in Matlab itself via vectorization (i.e. operate on the level of whole vectors/matrices as opposed to separate elements) or re-implementing performance-critical parts in C/C++.

The third one is something that just had to be lived with - Matlab was apparently designed as BASIC for engineers, as simple and straightforward imperative/array programming language as possible. Which is both a benefit and a flaw.

Julia is trying to solve the mentioned problems, and some others. At the moment of writing the current stable version is 0.35 (and 0.4 is being in the works), which suggests that there is still a way to go until it can be considered a mature and stable tool.

But even now it seems to be doing quite a good job.

And unlike Matlab, it's fun to program with, especially using a pimped REPL like IJulia. In fact, this article is just an IJulia notebook, which is available here. So let's go step-by-step and implement the building blocks that we need for the algorithm to run.

### Circle through three points

The basic operation we need first is finding a circle that goes through the three given points. There does noes not seem a corresponding library/function available in Julia yet, so let's roll our own, having looked into the Wikipedia article. Given any three points P1, P2 and P3 we can find the circle with center Pc and radius r, circumscribed over these points using the following formulas (this is just an one of the possible forms of equations):

$$P_c=-\frac{\alpha P_1 + \beta P_2 + \gamma P_3}{2d^2}$$ $$r=\frac{|P_1-P_2||P_2-P_3||P_3-P_1|}{2d}$$ $$d=|(P_1-P_2)\times(P_2-P_3)|$$ $$\alpha=|P_2-P_3|^2(P_1-P_2)\cdot(P_3-P_1)$$ $$\beta=|P_3-P_1|^2(P_1-P_2)\cdot(P_2-P_3)$$ $$\gamma=|P_1-P_2|^2(P_3-P_1)\cdot(P_2-P_3)$$

### Unit testing

But before writing any Julia code let's first figure out how could we test it.

There is a Base.Test Julia module which we can include and perform some basic unit testing:

In :
using Base.Test

@test 1 + 2 == 3


The test passes fine, there is no complaints. Let's try another one:

In :
@test .1 + .2 == .3

test failed: 0.1 + 0.2 == 0.3

in error at error.jl:21 (repeats 2 times)

As you can see, this one fails. Why?.. Well, simply because 0.1 plus 0.2 is not equal 0.3.

Here's a better way:

In :
@test_approx_eq (.1 + .2) .3


Now it passes alright. What if we wanted to compare tuples?

In :
@test_approx_eq (1 + 2, .1 + .2) (3, .3)

full has no method matching full(::(Int64,Float64))

in test_approx_eq at test.jl:88
in test_approx_eq at test.jl:119

This does not work, unfortunately, but Julia's flexible enough, so we can fix it by rolling our own unit testing macro, with Blackjack and stuff:

In :
is_close(x::Number, y::Number, epsilon = eps()) =
abs(y - x) <= max(1, abs(x), abs(y))*epsilon

is_close(x, y, epsilon = eps()) =
all(x -> is_close(x..., epsilon), zip(x, y))

function test_close(a, b, eps, astr, bstr)
if !is_close(a, b, eps)
println("test failed: $(astr) is not close to$(bstr);\n   $(a) vs$(b)")
end
end

macro test_close(a, b)
:( test_close($(a),$(b), 1e-6, $(string(a)),$(string(b))) )
end

@test_close (1 + 2, .1 + .2) (3, .3)
@test_close (1 + 2, .1 + .2) (2, .3)

test failed: (1 + 2,0.1 + 0.2) is not close to (2,0.3);
(3,0.30000000000000004) vs (2,0.3)



There is a bunch of language concepts already packed in a few lines here, such as function overloading/specialization, default parameter values, type inference, iterators, lambdas, tuple splicing, string interpolation, macros and what have you.

But this is just a glimpse into the Julia's capabilities, so if it does not make sense to you, then let's just pretend that Julia's test library already has it and move on.

### Circle through three points - the code

Armed with this, we can finally write some code, related to the problem at hand (and the corresponding unit tests). It is a rather straightforward translation of the formulas:

In :
# returns the (center, radius) of the circle, circumscribed around three points
function circumscribed_circle(P1, P2, P3)
d12 = vec(P1 - P2); n12 = dot(d12, d12)
d23 = vec(P2 - P3); n23 = dot(d23, d23)
d31 = vec(P3 - P1); n31 = dot(d31, d31)
d = norm(cross([d12; 0], [d23; 0]))
r = sqrt(n12*n23*n31)/(2d)
alpha = n23*dot(d12, d31)
beta = n31*dot(d12, d23)
gamma = n12*dot(d31, d23)
Pc = -(alpha*P1 + beta*P2 + gamma*P3)/(2d^2)
(Pc, r)
end

# the circumscribed_circle tests
@test_close ([-1, 1], 1) circumscribed_circle([-2; 1], [-1; 2], [0; 1])
@test_close ([0, 0], 2) circumscribed_circle([2; 0], [0; 2], [sqrt(2); sqrt(2)])


### Point orientation

Another function we'll need is the one that finds out whether three points are winded counter-clockwise (CW) or clock-wise.

We can do that by looking at the sign of the third component of a vector cross product between two vectors spanning our three points.

As a bonus we can also determine if all the three points are lined up (i.e they are neither CW nor CCW oriented). $$c_z=((P2-P1)\times(P3-P1)) \cdot [0,0,1]$$

In :
const EPSILON = 1e-5

# finds the orientation of three 2D points
# -1 for CW, 1 for CCW, 0 if on the same line
function orientation(P1, P2, P3)
_, _, cz = cross([vec(P2 - P1); 0], [vec(P3 - P1); 0])
if abs(cz) < EPSILON
cz = 0
end
sign(cz)
end

@test 1 == orientation([0; 0], [1; 0], [2; 2])
@test 0 == orientation([0; 0], [1; 1], [2; 2])
@test -1 == orientation([0; 0], [2; 2], [1; 0])


### Handling three points on the same line

Now that we've got our circumscribed circle function, let's try some other point combination:

In :
circumscribed_circle([1; 1], [2; 2], [3; 3])

Out:
([NaN,NaN],Inf)


Oops.

Apparently, the part with "any" three points was not quite correct: we can't make an arc through them if they happen to be on the same line. Since the problem constraint was to use only arc primitives (even though in practice G-codes do allow straight line segments as well), we'd need to remedy it somehow.

A solution is to offset the middle point somewhat in the direction, orthogonal to the line in question: The corresponding formulas and the code:

$$P_{offs}=P+\epsilon \frac{D_{\bot}}{|D_{\bot}|}, D_{\bot}=\begin{bmatrix}-D_y\\ D_x\\\end{bmatrix}, D = P_2 - P$$

In :
function offset_orthogonal(P2, P3)
D = P2 - P3
Dp = [-D; D]
P2 + EPSILON*Dp/norm(Dp)
end

@test 0 != orientation([0; 0], offset_orthogonal([1; 1], [2; 2]), [2; 2])


### Arc equation

What we are going to do, essentially, is to split the function's range into segments and on each segment approximate it with another function (of an arc). The arc function looks like following (coming from the circle equation):

$$f_{arc}(x)=c_y \pm \sqrt{R^2 - (x - c_x)^2}, x \in [c_x - R, c_x + R]$$

There are two possibilities for the arc function: it can be either convex or concave, which corresponds to the +/- in the equation: The code:

In :
function f_arc(x, c, R, convex = true)
cx, cy = c
plusminus = convex ? 1 : -1
cy + plusminus*sqrt(max(0, R^2 - (x - cx)^2))
end

@test_close 3 f_arc(1, [1; 1], 2, true)
@test_close -1 f_arc(1, [1; 1], 2, false)

@test_close 1 f_arc(3, [1; 1], 2, true)
@test_close 1 f_arc(3, [1; 1], 2, false)


### Arc data structure

To describe an arc segment it's convenient to group several attributes into a dedicated data structure. In Julia it's defined as following:

In :
type ArcSeg
c::Array{Float64, 1}  # arc center
a::Float64            # segment start
b::Float64            # segment end
convex::Bool          # true if top part of the circle (otherwise concave)
m::Float64            # middle point ratio
end


We have field data types specified here explicitly, but generally Julia does not require that.

### Making an arc

Here's a function to actually draw an arc through two corner points and the middle one, given the function and the segment:

In :
# makes an arc going through the segment ends
function make_arc(f, seg, middle_ratio = 0.5)
a, b = seg
m = a + (b - a)*middle_ratio
pa, pb, pm = [a; f(a)], [b; f(b)], [m; f(m)]
# handle the case when all three points are on the same line
porient = orientation(pa, pm, pb)
if porient == 0
# points are on the same line
pm = offset_orthogonal(pm, pb)
end
c, R = circumscribed_circle(pa, pm, pb)
ArcSeg(c, R, a, b, porient < 0, middle_ratio)
end

#  inscribe an arc into itself
_arc = make_arc(x -> f_arc(x, [1; 1], 5, true), (3, 4), 0.2)
@test_close [1; 1] _arc.c
@test_close (5, 3, 4, 0.2) (_arc.R, _arc.a, _arc.b, _arc.m)
@test _arc.convex


### Error metric

For measuring how far away is our arc from the actual function, we'll use the so-called L1-metric distance between functions:

$$E(x_1, x_2)=\int_{x_1}^{x_2} |f(x)-f_{arc}(x)| dx$$

Essentially, it's the area of undesired "slack" between two curves: To find the total error on the segment, we need to integrate this distance function (which looks like camel humps in our case): Finding this integral can be done in different ways, but we'll use a rather simple one, trapezoidal integration, whereas the segment is split into a number of chunks of equal width, and the total area is computed as the sum of the corresponding trapezoids: In :
const NUM_INTEGRATION_SAMPLES = 1000
function integrate_trapezoidal(f, x1, x2, N = NUM_INTEGRATION_SAMPLES)
@assert(N >= 1)
dx = (x2 - x1)/N;
s0 = (f(x1) + f(x2))/2
(s0 + sum([f(clamp(x1 + i*dx, x1, x2)) for i in 1:(N - 1)]))*(x2 - x1)/N
end

# integrate parabola
@test_close 2^3/3 integrate_trapezoidal(x -> x^2, 0, 2)
@test_close 2^3/3 integrate_trapezoidal(x -> x^2, 0, 2, 10000)
@test_close 2^3/3 integrate_trapezoidal(x -> x^2, 0, 2, 1000000)

# integrate half a circle (offset by 1 upwards from X axis)
@test_close (pi*3^2/2 + 3*2) integrate_trapezoidal(x -> f_arc(x, [1; 1], 3, true), 1 - 3, 1 + 3, 10000)


Then the error function itself is:

In :
function err(f, arc::ArcSeg)
err_metric(x) = abs(f(x) - f_arc(x, arc.c, arc.R, arc.convex))
res = integrate_trapezoidal(err_metric, arc.a, arc.b)
end

f(x) = 2
@test is_close(2 - pi/2, err(f, ArcSeg([1; 1], 1, 0, 2, true, 0.1)), 1e-4)


Note that package "Calculus" does have some numerical integration routines, which we could theoretically use, and that's what I tried at first.

That did not work out very well, though. The default integration method (Simpson's) does not seem to converge for some functions.

Another method there is Monte-Carlo integration:

In :
using Calculus
function err_old(f, arc::ArcSeg)
err_metric(x) = abs(f(x) - f_arc(x, arc.c, arc.R, arc.convex))
res = Calculus.monte_carlo(err_metric, arc.a, arc.b, NUM_INTEGRATION_SAMPLES)
end

@test_close (2 - pi/2) err_old(f, ArcSeg([1; 1], 1, 0, 2, true, 0.1))

test failed: 2 - pi / 2 is not close to err_old(f,ArcSeg([1,1],1,0,2,true,0.1));
0.42920367320510344 vs 0.44853908985971025


In :
@test_close (2 - pi/2) err_old(f, ArcSeg([1; 1], 1, 0, 2, true, 0.1))

test failed: 2 - pi / 2 is not close to err_old(f,ArcSeg([1,1],1,0,2,true,0.1));
0.42920367320510344 vs 0.4514461636060685



The same test both fails and gives different answers in different runs.

Non-deterministic == not good, so let's stick to our own trapezoidal wheel we've just reinvented.

### The "ears"

Now, our error metric is still not good enough, since it does not account for certain corner cases ("ears") such as here: The orange area is the one that we've just computed, but the pink and the green "ears" are the extra pieces that also add to the error value.

Since we generally take three arbitrary points to draw a circle through, such point configuration is not uncommon, and we need to properly adjust the error metric to account for it.

Wikipedia is, again, to the rescue for the ears area:

$$S=\frac{R^2}{2}(\theta - \sin{\theta}), \theta=2\arccos(1-\frac{x}{R})$$ In :
function circle_segment_area(x, R)
theta = 2acos((R-x)/R)
R^2*(theta - sin(theta))/2
end

@test_approx_eq circle_segment_area(0, 7) 0
@test_approx_eq circle_segment_area(14, 7) pi*7^2
@test_approx_eq circle_segment_area(7, 7) pi*7^2/2
@test_approx_eq circle_segment_area(2, 7) (pi*7^2 - circle_segment_area(7*2 - 2, 7))


### Full error function

Having taken the ears into account, let's write the full error function:

In :
function err1(f, arc::ArcSeg)
res = err(f, arc)
fa, fb = f(arc.a), f(arc.b)
cx, cy = arc.c, arc.c
if (fa > cy) != arc.convex
# left "ear"
res += circle_segment_area(arc.a - (cx - arc.R), arc.R)
end
if (fb > cy) != arc.convex
# right "ear"
res += circle_segment_area(cx + arc.R - arc.b, arc.R)
end
res
end

f(x) = 2
@test is_close(2 - pi/2, err1(f, ArcSeg([1; 1], 1, 0, 2, true, 0.1)), 1e-4)

arc = ArcSeg([1; 1], 1, 0.5, 1.5, true, 0.1)
d = f_arc(0.5, arc.c, arc.R)
f(x) = d
@test is_close(pi - circle_segment_area(d, 1), err1(f, arc), 1e-4)


### Fitting a sequence of arcs

Now we put together all the building blocks into the arc fitting procedure, following the steps discussed earlier:

In :
const STEP_RATIO = 0.8
const pick_center_pt = (f, a, b) -> 0.5

function fit_arcs(f, range, tolerance, pick_middle_pt = pick_center_pt)
ra, rb = range
D = rb - ra
rel_tol = tolerance/D
ca = ra
arcs = []
while ca < rb
cb = rb
while true
middle_ratio = pick_middle_pt(f, ca, cb)
arc = make_arc(f, (ca, cb), middle_ratio)
E = err1(f, arc)
if E <= rel_tol*(cb - ca)
arcs = [arcs, arc]
ca = cb
break
end
cb = ca + STEP_RATIO*(cb - ca)
end
end
arcs
end

Out:
fit_arcs (generic function with 2 methods)


We've left "pick the middle point" as a callback, which by default simply takes the point halfway between the segment ends.

### Inspecting the result

We did not write a unit test for this one, since it's a bit too complex of a unit already, but let's try and see how we could test it otherwise.

Let's take a simple function as an example:

$$f(x)=\frac{x^3}{27} + \frac{x}{5} - 1, x \in [-5, 4]$$ The Julia's DataFrames library can be used to organize/display the data in tabular form (and do much more than that):

In :
using DataFrames

fmt(x::Float64) = round(x, 3)
fmt(x::Array{Float64,1}) = map(fmt, x)
fmt(x::Bool) = x ? "yes" : "no"
fmt(x) = x

function to_table(arcs)
DataFrame(
c = map(x->fmt(x.c), arcs),
R = map(x->fmt(x.R), arcs),
a = map(x->fmt(x.a), arcs),
b = map(x->fmt(x.b), arcs),
m = map(x->fmt(x.m), arcs),
convex = map(x->fmt(x.convex), arcs))
end

to_table(fit_arcs(x -> x^3/27 + x/5 - 1, [-5 4], 0.1))

Out:
cRabmconvex
1[11.278,-11.843]17.092-5.0-3.7920.5yes
2[1.386,-6.401]5.805-3.792-2.1580.5yes
3[0.554,-5.846]4.868-2.158-0.140.5yes
4[-0.888,4.714]5.79-0.141.980.5no
5[-0.935,3.985]5.1961.983.5960.5no
6[-5.283,6.839]10.3913.5964.00.5no

It shows us something, but still not much.

### Printing G-codes

We can proceed and generate the actual G-codes. The subset that we are interested in is:

• G02 X[xpos] Y[ypos] I[cdx] J[cdy] - CW rotation ending in location (xpos, ypos), with center relatively offset by (cdx, cdy) from the current location
• G02 X[xpos] Y[ypos] R[R] - CW rotation ending in location (xpos, ypos), with radius R from the current location

• G03 ... - the same as G02, but for CCW rotation

G02 corresponds to the "convex" arcs, G03 to the "concave" ones.

There are two notations for arc codes: IJ-notation (specifying the relative circle center offset) and R-notation (specifying just the circle radius).

The latter is more compact, but the former is a bit safer, since it potentially allows the controller to do additional consistency checks.

We implement both of them.

In :
function make_g_code(arcs, rformat=true, split_lines=true)
fmt(x) = (round(x, 3) == round(x, 0)) ? @sprintf("%d", x) : @sprintf("%.3f", x)
function arc2g(arc)
a, b = arc.a, arc.b
fa = f_arc(a, arc.c, arc.R, arc.convex)
fb = f_arc(b, arc.c, arc.R, arc.convex)
cx, cy = arc.c
res = split_lines ? "\n" : ""
res *= (arc.convex ? "G02" : "G03") * " X$(fmt(b)) Y$(fmt(fb)) "
res *= rformat ? "R$(fmt(arc.R))" : "I$(fmt(cx - a)) J$(fmt(cy - fa))" end a1 = arcs fa1 = f_arc(a1.a, a1.c, a1.R, a1.convex) "G00 X$(fmt(a1.a)) Y$(fmt(fa1)) " * join(map(arc2g, arcs), " ") end arc = ArcSeg([1; 1], 1, 0, 2, true, 0.1) @test "G00 X0 Y1 G02 X2 Y1 R1" == make_g_code([arc], true, false)  The actual G-codes appearance can be tested online, for example here. In : print(make_g_code(fit_arcs(x -> x^3/27 + x/5 - 1, [-5 4], 0.1)))  G00 X-5 Y-6.630 G02 X-3.792 Y-3.778 R17.092 G02 X-2.158 Y-1.804 R5.805 G02 X-0.140 Y-1.028 R4.868 G03 X1.980 Y-0.317 R5.790 G03 X3.596 Y1.441 R5.196 G03 X4 Y2.170 R10.391 ### Visualization Let's try and plot the arc approximation ourselves, using whatever facilities Julia provides. To plot the sequence of arcs, we first need to generate a sequence of corresponding points. For that, let's first write a function "normalize_angle_range", which would arrange two arc angles in a "samplable" manner: In : # angle of 2D vector to X axis (CCW direction is positive) function vec_angle(c, p) d = p - c atan2(d, d) end # normalizes two angle such that range is continuous # and represents the corresponding minor/major arc function normalize_angle_range(anga, angb, convex::Bool) if anga < angb anga += 2pi end if !convex angb += 2pi end anga, angb end using Base.Test a, b = normalize_angle_range(-3.1, 3.0, true) @test_approx_eq a (-3.1 + 2pi) @test_approx_eq b 3.0 a, b = normalize_angle_range(0.2, -0.02, true) @test_approx_eq a 0.2 @test_approx_eq b -0.02 a, b = normalize_angle_range(1.8, 0.7, false) @test_approx_eq a 1.8 @test_approx_eq b (0.7 + 2pi)  Then the arc sequence is sampled via: In : const ARC_GRANULARITY = 100 function get_arc_points(f, arcs) xp, yp = [], [] for arc in arcs ang(x) = vec_angle(arc.c, [x; f(x)]) anga, angb = normalize_angle_range(ang(arc.a), ang(arc.b), arc.convex) t = linspace(anga, angb, ARC_GRANULARITY) for ct = t cx, cy = arc.c + arc.R*[cos(ct); sin(ct)] xp = [xp, cx] yp = [yp, cy] end end xp, yp end  Out: get_arc_points (generic function with 1 method)  We'll use PyPlot library, which is essentially a Julia binding to the Python's matplotlib. I initially tried Gadfly, the native Julias plotting library, but even though it looks nice, it's still not even closely come to the matplotlib capabilities. The "looks nice" part we can somehow improve on the PyPlot side via some superfluous styling: In : using PyPlot function style_plot() PyPlot.figure(figsize=(5, 3)) PyPlot.rc("axes", edgecolor="#eeeeee"); PyPlot.rc("xtick", color="#777777") PyPlot.rc("ytick", color="#777777") PyPlot.grid(color="#aaaaaa",linewidth=1) end function style_lines(lines) PyPlot.setp(lines, color="#99bdee", linewidth=7) PyPlot.setp(lines, color="#aa6666", linewidth=2) PyPlot.setp(lines, color="#99bdee", marker="o", ls="", ms=4) PyPlot.setp(lines, color="#ddddff", marker="o", ls="", ms=3) end  INFO: Loading help data...  Out: style_lines (generic function with 1 method)  Another gimmick is drawing the actual circles, and doing it in different, palette-based colors. Matplotlib can do that via "circle patches" and "color maps", however PyPlot only exposes a limited subset of the functionality. So we'll need to do it manually, exposing the required bits directly from Python ourselves. Thankfully, Julia is extremely flexible in this regard, so it works rather nice: In : using PyCall @pyimport matplotlib.patches as mpatches @pyimport matplotlib.cm as cm # draw the colormapped circles according to the arc list function plot_circles(arcs) const narcs = length(arcs) # need to jump through the hoops somewhat, # since PyPlot does not expose these things (yet) # import the colormap from Matplotlib cmap = PyPlot.get_cmap("Set2") w = linspace(1, narcs, narcs) rgba = pycall(pycall(cm.ScalarMappable, PyObject, cmap=cmap)["to_rgba"], PyAny, w, bytes=true) # add the circles as "circle patches" for i = 1:narcs arc = arcs[i] fmt(n) = @sprintf("%02x", rgba[i, n]) clr = "#$(fmt(1))$(fmt(2))$(fmt(3))" # convert to "#rrggbb" string format
pc = mpatches.Circle((arc.c, arc.c), arc.R, edgecolor=clr, fill = false)
end
end

style_plot()
PyPlot.xlim(-15, 15)
PyPlot.ylim(-10, 10)
plot_circles(fit_arcs(x -> x^3/27 + x/5 - 1, [-5 4], 0.1)) Gathering all of the above, here's how our plot comes together, with four sets of points:

• the target function plot (blue fat line)
• the arc interpolation plot (dark red line)
• segment end points (blue circles)
• segment middle points (smaller white circles)
In :
const PLOT_GRANULARITY = 10000
function plot_arc_interp(f, range, arcs)
style_plot()

# segment junction points
xpj = unique(hcat([[x.a x.b] for x in arcs]...))
ypj = map(f, xpj)

# middle points
xpm = [x.a + (x.b - x.a)*x.m for x in arcs]
ypm = map(f, xpm)

# interpolated function points
xpf = linspace(range, range, PLOT_GRANULARITY)
ypf = map(f, xpf)

# arcs points
xpa, ypa = get_arc_points(f, arcs)

lines = PyPlot.plot(xpf, ypf, xpa, ypa, xpj, ypj, xpm, ypm)

style_lines(lines)

PyPlot.xlim(range, range)
plot_circles(arcs)
end

f(x) = x^3/27 + x/5 - 1
range = [-5 4]
plot_arc_interp(f, range, fit_arcs(f, range, 0.1)) ### Putting all together for testing

Now we can try different functions, error thresholds, ranges. A small helper function for that:

In :
err_total(f, arcs) = sum([err1(f, arc) for arc in arcs])

function test_arc_interp(f, range, tolerance = 0.1, print_g_code = true, pick_middle_pt = pick_center_pt)
@time arcs = fit_arcs(f, range, tolerance, pick_middle_pt)
println("Number of arcs: $(length(arcs))") println("Total error:$(err_total(f, arcs))")
plot_arc_interp(f, range, arcs)
if print_g_code
gcode = make_g_code(arcs, true, false)
println("G-code:\n\$(gcode)")
end
end

test_arc_interp(x-> 6x^2 + 4x - 8, [-4 4], 0.1, false)

elapsed time: 0.152438485 seconds (45099664 bytes allocated, 25.85% gc time)
Number of arcs: 20
Total error: 0.07216805486071634 The same function with lower error threshold:

In :
test_arc_interp(x-> 6x^2 + 4x - 8, [-4 4], 1, false)

elapsed time: 0.066914027 seconds (16386448 bytes allocated)
Number of arcs: 10
Total error: 0.6544221702773689 ...and with a really low one:

In :
test_arc_interp(x-> 6x^2 + 4x - 8, [-4 4], 100.0, false)

elapsed time: 0.007417983 seconds (1824680 bytes allocated)
Number of arcs: 3
Total error: 42.708163098930484 A "bad" function with straight lines:

In :
test_arc_interp(x -> -abs(x - 1) + 2, [-3 4], 0.1, false)

elapsed time: 0.012309038 seconds (5774320 bytes allocated)
Number of arcs: 4
Total error: 0.0016118650776638412 A bit more complex function:

In :
test_arc_interp(x -> 2sin(x^3/3) + x - 1, [-3 6], 1.0, false)

elapsed time: 0.675180831 seconds (221618024 bytes allocated, 28.59% gc time)
Number of arcs: 71
Total error: 0.6994299204966241 ### Trying to improve the algorithm

We were picking the middle point in a simplistic manner (taking it halfway between the segment ends).

One thing to experiment with is trying to pick it in a more optimal manner, using, for example, Julia Optim package:

In :
using Optim
function pick_optim_pt(f, a, b)
err_s = x -> err1(f, make_arc(f, (a, b), x))
optimize(err_s, 0.0, 1.0, method=:brent).minimum
end

test_arc_interp(x -> 2sin(x^3/3) + x - 1, [-2 3], 1.0, false, pick_optim_pt)

elapsed time: 0.785626314 seconds (235015504 bytes allocated, 31.36% gc time)
Number of arcs: 8
Total error: 0.6003920604672457 Compare it to the straightforward halfway point approach:

In :
test_arc_interp(x -> 2sin(x^3/3) + x - 1, [-2 3], 1.0, false)

elapsed time: 0.029571774 seconds (11800152 bytes allocated)
Number of arcs: 9
Total error: 0.6420196875650314 The "improved" algorithm is one arc fewer, smaller error, which is better.

But it's 25 times slower in this particular case, so it's a matter of accepting the tradeoff or not.

### Further improvements

The way we've done our arc fitting here is far from being the best possible (it's probably one of the worst!), but it still gave good enough results.

One of the interesting things to try next time is biarc interpolation (a nice description can be seen e.g here).

All in all, I've had a lot of joy trying Julia. The code could have certainly been written in a cleaner way, so that's something to improve upon, which I'd gladly try doing.

The biggest problem currently is that there is not too much information available on the language itself (Julia books, anyone?..) Another one is lack of a proper debugging facilities.

I hope both of these are temporary inconveniences. After all, the language is still young and developing.

In any case, Matlab already has a younger sister, who is both beautiful and smart.